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Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Eisenhut, Marion; Schneider, Anja (2020): Chloroplast Transition Metal Regulation for Efficient Photosynthesis. In: Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 25, No. 8: pp. 817-828
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Abstract

Plants require sunlight, water, CO2, and essential nutrients to drive photosynthesis and fulfill their life cycle. The photosynthetic apparatus resides in chloroplasts and fundamentally relies on transition metals as catalysts and cofactors. Accordingly, chloroplasts are particularly rich in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu). Owing to their redox properties, those metals need to be carefully balanced within the cell. However, the regulation of transition metal homeostasis in chloroplasts is poorly understood. With the availability of the arabidopsis genome information and membrane protein databases, a wider catalogue for searching chloroplast metal transporters has considerably advanced the study of transition metal regulation. This review provides an updated overview of the chloroplast transition metal requirements and the transporters involved for efficient photosynthesis in higher plants.