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Thies, Nina; Zech, Alexandra; Kohlmann, Thorsten; Biberthaler, Peter; Bayeff-Filloff, Michael; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Prückner, Stephan (2021): Preparation of hospitals for mass casualty incidents in Bavaria, Germany: care capacities for penetrating injuries and explosions in TerrorMASCALs. In: Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine, Vol. 29, 156
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Background In a terror attack mass casualty incident (TerrorMASCAL), compared to a “normal” MASCAL, there is a dynamic course that can extend over several hours. The injury patterns are penetrating and perforating injuries. This article addresses the provision of material and personnel for the care of special injuries of severely injured persons that may occur in the context of a TerrorMASCAL. Methods To answer the research question about the preparation of hospitals for the care of severely injured persons in a TerrorMASCAL, a survey of trauma surgery departments in Bavaria (Germany) was conducted using a questionnaire, which was prepared in three defined steps based on an expert consensus. The survey is divided into a general, neurosurgical, thoracic, vascular and trauma surgery section. In the specialized sections, the questions relate to the implementation of and material and personnel requirements for special interventions that are required, particularly for injury patterns following gunshot and explosion injuries, such as trepanation, thoracotomy and balloon occlusion of the aorta. Results In the general section, it was noted that only a few clinics have an automated system to notify off-duty staff. When evaluating the data from the neurosurgical section, the following could be established with regard to the performance of trepanation: the regional trauma centers do not perform trepanation but nevertheless have the required material and personnel available. A similar result was recorded for local trauma centers. In the thoracic surgery section, it could be determined that almost all trauma centers that do not perform thoracotomy have the required material available. This group of trauma centers also stated that they have staff who can perform thoracotomy independently. The retrograde endovascular aortic occlusion procedure is possible in 88% of supraregional, 64% of regional and 10% of local trauma centers. Pelvic clamps and external fixators are available at all trauma centers. Conclusion The results of the survey show potential for optimization both in the area of framework conditions and in the care of patients. Consistent and specific training measures, for example, could improve the nationwide performance of these special interventions. Likewise, it must be discussed whether the abovementioned special procedures should be reserved for higher-level trauma centers.