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Guenther, Stefanie R.; Schumann, Ricarda G.; Zaytseva, Yulia; Hagenau, Felix; Wolf, Armin; Priglinger, Siegfried G.; Vogt, Denise (2021): Cell composition at the vitreomacular interface in traumatic macular holes. In: Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology
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PURPOSE To describe characteristics of the vitreomacular interface (VMI) in traumatic macular holes (TMH) compared to idiopathic macular holes (IMH) using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and to correlate with clinical data. METHODS For immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analyses, premacular tissue with internal limiting membrane (ILM) and epiretinal membrane (ERM) was harvested during vitrectomy from 5 eyes with TMH and 5 eyes with IMH. All specimens were processed as flat mounts for phase-contrast microscopy, interference and fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Primary antibodies were used against microglial and macroglial cells. Clinical data was retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS Surgically excised premacular tissue of eyes with TMH showed a less pronounced positive immunoreactivity for anti-glutamine synthetase, anti-vimentin and anti-IBA1 compared to eyes with IMH. Cell nuclei staining of the flat-mounted specimens as well as TEM presented a lower cell count in eyes with TMH compared to IMH. All detected cells were found on the vitreal side of the ILM. No collagen fibrils were seen in specimens of TMH. According to patients' age, intraoperative data as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) analysis revealed an attached posterior vitreous in the majority of TMH cases (60%), whereas all eyes with IMH presented posterior vitreous detachment. CONCLUSION The vitreomacular interface in TMH and IMH shows significant differences. In TMH, glial cells are a rare finding on the vitreal side of the ILM.