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Eddicks, Matthias; Maurer, Roland; Deffner, Pauline; Eddicks, Lina; Sipos, Wolfgang; Reese, Sven ORCID: 0000-0002-4605-9791; Cvjetkovic, Vojislav; Krejci, Roman; Opriessnig, Tanja; Ritzmann, Mathias; Fux, Robert (10. June 2022): Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of PCV Types 2 and 3 DNA in Suckling Piglets Compared to Grow–Finish Pigs in Downstream Production. In: pathogens, Vol. 11, No. 671
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Vertical transmission is a consistently discussed pathway of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) transmission in pigs. To evaluate the presence of PCV2 and PCV3 in piglets, we collected tissue samples from 185 piglets that were crushed within the first week of life from 16 farms located in Germany and Austria. Pooled samples consisting of thymus, inguinal lymph node, myocardium, lung and spleen were examined for PCV2 and PCV3 by qPCR. Furthermore, oral fluid samples (OFS) from grow–finish pigs were collected and examined the same way. In piglets, PCV2 was highly prevalent (litters: 69.4%; piglets: 61.6%), whereas PCV3 prevalence was low (litters: 13.4%; piglets: 13.0%). In total, 72.6% and 67.2% of all collected OFS were PCV2 or PCV3 positive, respectively. Sow vaccination against PCV2 was identified as a protective factor concerning PCV2 in piglets (OR: 0.279; CI: 0.134–0.578; p < 0.001), whereas the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination of sows was identified as a protective factor concerning PCV3 in piglets (OR: 0.252 CI: 0.104–0.610; p = 0.002). Our results show that PCV2, but not PCV3, is ubiquitous in suckling piglets and that early PCV3 infections might be modulated by PRRSV–PCV3 interaction. However, the ubiquitous nature of both viruses in older pigs could be confirmed.