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Frank, Konstantin; Schenck, Thilo L.; Gavril, Diana; Swift, Arthur; Liew, Steven; Freytag, David L.; Kaiser, Antonia; Green, Jeremy B.; Beleznay, Kate and Cotofana, Sebastian (2021): Influence of Rheological Properties and Needle Size on Extrusion Forces of Hyaluronic Acid-Based Soft Tissue Fillers. In: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, Vol. 20, No. 5: pp. 498-502

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Background:To date no precise data are available for extrusion forces related to the G-prime and G-double-prime of fillers in combination with different 27G and 30G needles. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze extrusion forces of various product-needle-combinations containing two different 27G and two different 30G needles in combination with fillers of a wide range of elastic moduli starting from 2.0 - 166.0 Pa. Material and Methods: Four different fillers with the following elastic moduli 1.87, 11.65, 61.80, 165.50 Pa were combined with four different needles: 27G 1/2,'' internal diameter: 0.300 mu m;27G 1/2,'' internal diameter: 0.241 mu m;30G 1/2,'' internal diameter: 0.241 pm and 30G 1/2,'' internal diameter: 0.240 mu m. Product-needle-combination were subjected to uni-axial mechanical testing and the respective extrusion force was measured. Results: The results of this study revealed that the G-prime and the G-double-prime of a product are statistically significantly related to their extrusion force, with higher G-prime/G-double-prime products requiring higher extrusion forces. The results additionally revealed that whether the size of the needle was described as 27G or 30G by the respective manufacturer statistically significant differences between the measured extrusion forces were detected. Conclusion: Injectors need to be aware that not every 27G/30G needle has the same extrusion force even though the external diameter is similar (27G or 30G);this might additionally influence the ability to withdraw blood during a pre-injection aspiration maneuver.

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