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Hoffmann, Dirk; Sens, Johanna; Brennig, Sebastian; Brand, Daniel; Philipp, Friederike; Vollmer Barbosa, Philippe; Kuehle, Johannes; Steinemann, Doris; Lenz, Daniela; Buchegger, Theresa; Morgan, Michael; Falk, Christine S.; Klein, Christoph; Lachmann, Nico and Schambach, Axel (2021): Genetic Correction of IL-10RB Deficiency Reconstitutes Anti-Inflammatory Regulation in iPSC-Derived Macrophages. In: Journal of Personalized Medicine, Vol. 11, No. 3, 221

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Patient material from rare diseases such as very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) is often limited. The use of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for disease modeling is a promising approach to investigate disease pathomechanisms and therapeutic strategies. We successfully developed VEO-IBD patient-derived iPSC lines harboring a mutation in the IL-10 receptor beta-chain (IL-10RB) associated with defective IL-10 signaling. To characterize the disease phenotype, healthy control and VEO-IBD iPSCs were differentiated into macrophages. IL-10 stimulation induced characteristic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) downstream signaling and anti-inflammatory regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated cytokine secretion in healthy control iPSC-derived macrophages. In contrast, IL-10 stimulation of macrophages derived from patient iPSCs did not result in STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent SOCS3 expression, recapitulating the phenotype of cells from patients with IL-10RB deficiency. In line with this, LPS-induced cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)) could not be downregulated by exogenous IL-10 stimulation in VEO-IBD iPSC-derived macrophages. Correction of the IL-10RB defect via lentiviral gene therapy or genome editing in the adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1) safe harbor locus led to reconstitution of the anti-inflammatory response. Corrected cells showed IL-10RB expression, IL-10-inducible phosphorylation of STAT3, and subsequent SOCS3 expression. Furthermore, LPS-mediated TNF-alpha secretion could be modulated by IL-10 stimulation in gene-edited VEO-IBD iPSC-derived macrophages. Our established disease models provide the opportunity to identify and validate new curative molecular therapies and to investigate phenotypes and consequences of additional individual IL-10 signaling pathway-dependent VEO-IBD mutations.

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