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Hope, Thomas A.; Eiber, Matthias; Armstrong, Wesley R.; Juarez, Roxanna; Murthy, Vishnu; Lawhn-Heath, Courtney; Behr, Spencer C.; Zhang, Li; Barbato, Francesco; Ceci, Francesco; Farolfi, Andrea; Schwarzenboeck, Sarah M.; Unterrainer, Marcus; Zacho, Helle D.; Nguyen, Hao G.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Carroll, Peter R.; Reiter, Robert E.; Holden, Stuart; Herrmann, Ken; Zhu, Shaojun; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Czernin, Johannes and Calais, Jeremie (2021): Diagnostic Accuracy of Ga-68-PSMA-11 PET for Pelvic Nodal Metastasis Detection Prior to Radical Prostatectomy and Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection A Multicenter Prospective Phase 3 Imaging Trial. In: Jama Oncology, Vol. 7, No. 11: pp. 1635-1642

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IMPORTANCE The presence of pelvic nodal metastases at radical prostatectomy is associated with biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy. OBJECTIVE To assess the accuracy of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) Ga-68-PSMA-11 positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging for the detection of pelvic nodal metastases compared with histopathology at time of radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This investigator-initiated prospective multicenter single-arm open-label phase 3 imaging trial of diagnostic efficacy enrolled 764 patients with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer considered for prostatectomy at University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Los Angeles from December 2015 to December 2019. Data analysis took place from October 2018 to July 2021. INTERVENTIONS Imaging scan with 3 to 7 mCi of Ga-68-PSMA-11 PET. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was the sensitivity and specificity for the detection pelvic lymph nodes compared with histopathology on a per-patient basis using nodal region correlation. Each scan was read centrally by 3 blinded independent central readers, and a majority rule was used for analysis. RESULTS A total of 764 men (median [interquartile range] age, 69 [63-73] years) underwent 1 Ga-68-PSMA-11 PET imaging scan for primary staging, and 277 of 764 (36%) subsequently underwent prostatectomy with lymph node dissection (efficacy analysis cohort). Based on pathology reports, 75 of 277 patients (27%) had pelvic nodal metastasis. Results of (GaGa)-Ga-68-PSMA-11 PET were positive in 40 of 277 (14%), 2 of 277 (1%), and 7 of 277 (3%) of patients for pelvic nodal, extrapelvic nodal, and bone metastatic disease. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for pelvic nodal metastases were 0.40 (95% CI, 0.34-0.46), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.97), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70-0.80), and 0.81(95% CI, 0.76-0.85), respectively. Of the 764 patients, 487 (64%) did not undergo prostatectomy, of which 108 were lost to follow-up. Patients with follow-up instead underwent radiotherapy (262 of 379 [69%]), systemic therapy (82 of 379 [22%]), surveillance (16 of 379 [4%]), or other treatments (19 of 379 [5%]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This phase 3 diagnostic efficacy trial found that in men with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy and lymph node dissection, the sensitivity and specificity of Ga-68-PSMA-11 PET were 0.40 and 0.95, respectively. This academic collaboration is the largest known to date and formed the foundation of a New Drug Application for Ga-68-PSMA-11.

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