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Ilie, Nicoleta and Diegelmann, Julia (2021): Impact of ultra-fast (3 s) light-cure on cell toxicity and viscoelastic behavior in a dental resin-based composite with RAFT-mediated polymerization. In: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol. 124, 104810

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Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of ultra-fast (3 s) light-curing on the viscoelastic behaviour at clinically relevant frequencies, and cell toxicity, in a resin-based composite (RBC) with reversible addition-fragmentation-chain transfer (RAFT) mediated polymerization. Methods: Three different protocols were used to cure cylindrical samples (height = 4 mm, 0 = 5 mm), including ultra-fast (3s) cure with high radiant emittance, 10 s and 20 s cure with moderate radiant emittance. The properties of the light curing device were evaluated in all curing protocols by spectrophotometry up to an exposure distance of 10 mm. The light transmission through the samples was determined in real-time with the same spectrophotometer. Absorbance was calculated as a function of wavelength. The quasi-static (indentation hardness/HIT, indentation modulus/EIT) and viscoelastic (storage modulus/E ', loss modulus/E '', loss factor/tan 8) material behavior was determined in an instrumented indentation test with a DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analysis) module for 10 frequencies (0.5-5 Hz) by profiling the center of the samples in 330 mu m steps from top to bottom. Cellular toxicity on human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) was assessed using a WST-1 colorimetric assay after incubation time of up to 3 months. One and multiple-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) post-hoc tests (alpha = 0.05) were applied. Results: The irradiance transmitted through a 4 mm high sample was less than 7% of the incident irradiance, and the absorbance was similar for all curing protocols, showing a decrease with wavelength. Similar quasi-static and viscoelastic parameters were observed regardless of the curing protocol. HIT increased slightly and EIT, E ', E '' and tan 8 decreased with frequency. Occasionally, slightly higher confidence intervals were observed for the ultrafast curing group, which were related to a potential accumulation of stress. The curing protocol had no effect on cell viability (p = 0.326) but the eluate age (p < 0.001, 11P2 = 0.879) did. None of the groups showed cell toxicity at any point in time with respect to the corresponding negative control. Conclusions: The ultra-fast curing with high irradiance induced no cell toxicity and an equivalent viscoelastic behavior as with conventional curing protocols in a RAFT-modified RBC.

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