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Kammerl, Ilona Elisabeth; Flexeder, Claudia; Karrasch, Stefan; Thorand, Barbara; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger and Meiners, Silke (2021): Blood Immunoproteasome Activity Is Regulated by Sex, Age and in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: A First Population-Based Study. In: Cells, Vol. 10, No. 12, 3336

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Dysfunction of the immunoproteasome has been implicated in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Its potential as a biomarker for predicting disease stages, however, has not been investigated so far and population-based analyses on the impact of sex and age are missing. We here analyzed the activity of all six catalytic sites of the proteasome in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 873 study participants of the KORA FF4 study using activity-based probes. The activity of the immuno- and standard proteasome correlated clearly with elevated leukocyte counts of study participants. Unexpectedly, we observed a strong sex dimorphism for proteasome activity with significantly lower immunoproteasome activity in women. In aging, almost all catalytic activities of the proteasome were activated in aged women while maintained upon aging in men. We also noted distinct sex-related activation patterns of standard and immunoproteasome active sites in chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as determined by multiple linear regression modeling. Our data thus provides a conceptual framework for future analysis of immunoproteasome function as a bio-marker for chronic inflammatory disease development and progression.

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