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Karl, Marion; Sie, Lintje and Ritchie, Brent W. (2021): Expanding Travel Constraint Negotiation Theory: An Exploration of Cognitive and Behavioral Constraint Negotiation Relationships. In: Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 61, No. 4, 4,72875E+14: pp. 762-785

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Travel participation and preferences are impacted by a range of constraints, which can be overcome using behavioral (i.e., actions) and cognitive (i.e., mental) constraint negotiation strategies. Given the limited focus on cognitive negotiation in tourism research, this study aims to expand travel constraint negotiation theory using a sequential mixed-methods approach. Qualitative interviews (n=27) with travelers affected by constraints were used to identify emergent themes of cognitive constraint negotiation. A quantitative survey (n=978) was conducted to empirically test hypothesized relationships between constraints and cognitive as well as behavioral negotiation strategies. Results showed cognitive constraint negotiation (1) involved either changes in perceptions of a constraint or travel aspirations, (2) was positively related to behavioral strategies, and (3) mediated the relationship between constraints and behavioral negotiation strategies. Consequently, cognitive constraint negotiation was found to play a more important role than suggested in past studies.

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