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Karschnia, Philipp; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Bent, Martin van den; Cahill, Daniel P.; Bello, Lorenzo; Narita, Yoshitaka; Berger, Mitchel S.; Weller, Michael and Tonn, Joerg-Christian (2021): Evidence-based recommendations on categories for extent of resection in diffuse glioma. In: European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 149: pp. 23-33

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Surgical resection represents the standard of care in diffuse glioma, and more extensive tumour resection appears to be associated with favourable outcome. Up to now, terminology to describe extent of resection has been inconsistently applied across clinical trials which hampers comparative analysis of cohorts between different studies. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we developed evidence-based expert recommendations on categories for extent of resection. Recommendations are formulated for the categories 'biopsy', 'partial resection', 'subtotal resection', 'near total resection', 'complete resection' and 'supramaximal resection'. Definitions rest on reduction of contrast-and non-contrast-enhancing tumour in glioblastoma, and on reduction of T2/FLAIR-hyperintense tumour in gliomas WHO grade 2 or 3. Both relative reduction of tumour volume (in percentage) as a measurement of surgical efficacy and absolute residual tumour volume (in cm(3)) as a measurement of remaining tumour burden are incorporated into the categories for extent of resection. Class of evidence for the proposed categories ranges from class IIB to IV. Limitations of the suggested categories are discussed. The proposed categories on extent of resection offer a framework to standardize nomenclature based on previous studies, and will need to be evaluated in prospective, molecularly well-defined cohorts. Our categories may eventually help as a stratification factor for future clinical trials. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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