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Ketwetsuriya, Chatchalerm; Hausmann, Imelda M. and Nützel, Alexander (2021): Diversity patterns of Middle Permian gastropod assemblages from the Tak Fa Formation, Central Thailand. In: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, Vol. 101, No. 4: pp. 907-925

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Middle Permian marine invertebrate assemblages from Central Thailand are strongly dominated by gastropods. Two gastropod assemblages from the Tak Fa Limestone at Khao Noi and Khao Chao Thong of the Nakhon Sawan area are the first Permian ones from Thailand that are analysed regarding diversity and composition based on quantitative data. Both gastropod assemblages, comprising 40 species in total, are dominated by the gastropods Anomphalus sp., Warthia cf. brevisinuata and Glabrocingulum magnum;the genus Anomphalus is especially abundant which is unusual for Permian assemblages. Both studied gastropod assemblages have a similar taxonomic composition and diversity including the same values of diversity indices that indicate a moderate diversity. In addition, rarefaction analyses and rank-abundance distributions also suggest that diversity and structure of both assemblages are the same. The studied assemblage is compared with other Permian gastropod assemblages from Asia (Malaysia, East Timor and Japan). Rarefaction, diversity indices and rank-abundance distributions suggest that the diversity of the studied fauna is distinctly lower than that of the others despite coming from similar depositional environments. This is surprising because the Tak Fa gastropods lived at lower latitudes than the others. This could suggest an inverse diversity gradient in the Palaeo-Tethys, but more evidence is needed to substantiate this assumption. Several Late Palaeozoic and Early Mesozoic fossil assemblages are dominated by gastropods, e.g. those from the Pennsylvanian Buckhorn Asphalt deposit, the Permian from Japan and Malaysia, as well as the Late Triassic Cassian Formation. This shows that at least locally, gastropod dominance is not restricted to modern faunas.

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