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Korolev, Nester; Nikitina, Larisa P.; Goncharov, Alexey; Dubinina, Elena O.; Melnik, Aleksey; Mueller, Dirk; Chen, Yi-Xiang and Zinchenko, Vladimir N. (2021): Three Types of Mantle Eclogite from Two Layers of Oceanic Crust: A Key Case of Metasomataically-Aided Transformation of Low-to-High-Magnesian Eclogite. In: Journal of Petrology, Vol. 62, No. 11, egab070

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Reconstructed whole-rock (RWR) and mineral major- and trace-element compositions, as well as new oxygen isotope data, for 22 mantle eclogite xenoliths from the Catoca pipe (Kasai Craton) were used to constrain their genesis and evolution. On the basis of mineralogical and major-element compositions, the Catoca eclogites can be divided into three groups: high-alumina (high-Al) (kyanite-bearing), low-magnesian (low-Mg#), and high-magnesian (high-Mg#) eclogites. The high-Al Catoca eclogites contain kyanite and corundum;high Al2O3 contents in rock-forming minerals;rare earth element (REE) patterns in garnets showing depleted LREEs, positive Eu anomalies (1.03-1.66), and near-flat HREEs;and high Sr contents in garnets and whole-rock REE compositions. All of these features point to a plagioclase-rich protolith (probably gabbro). RWR compositions (major elements, MREEs, HREEs, Li, V, Hf, Y, Zr, and Pb) and delta O-18 of 5.5-7.4 parts per thousand of the low-Mg# Catoca eclogites are in good agreement with the compositions of picrite basalts and average mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). The depleted LREEs and NMORB-normalised Nd/Yb values of 0.07-0.41 indicate that the degree of partial melting for the majority of the low-Mg# eclogites protolith was >= 30%. The narrow delta O-18 range of 5.5-7.4 parts per thousand near the 'gabbro-basalt' boundary (6 parts per thousand) obtained for the high-Al and low-Mg# Catoca eclogites reflects the influence of subduction-related processes. This case shows that mantle eclogites represented by two different lithologies and originating from different protoliths-plagioclase-rich precursor, presumably gabbro (for high-Al eclogites), and basalt (low-Mg# eclogites)-can provide similar and overlapping delta O-18 signatures on account of the influence of subduction-related processes. Chemical compositions of the high-Mg# eclogites indicate a complicated petrogenesis, and textural signatures reveal recrystallisation. The presence of Nb-rich rutile (8-12 wt% of Nb2O5) enriched with high field strength elements (HFSE) (Zr/Hf of 72.6-75.6) and multiple trace-element signatures (including RWR, NMORB-normalised Ce/Yb of 3.9-10.6 and Sr/Y of 5.8-9.6, MgO contents of 15.7-17.9 wt%, and high Ba and Sr) provide strong evidence for deep metasomatic alteration. High Cr contents in clinopyroxene (8003740 ppm), garnet (430-1400 ppm), and accessory rutile (700-2530 ppm), together with extremely low Li contents of 1.0-2.4 ppm in clinopyroxene, may indicate hybridisation of the eclogites with peridotite. Comparison of the chemical compositions (major and trace elements) of (1) unaltered fresh cores of coarse-grained garnets from the low-Mg# eclogites, (2) secondary garnet rims (ubiquitous in the low-Mg# eclogites), (3) proto-cores in the coarse-grained garnet (high-Mg# eclogites), and (4) homogeneous recrystallised fine-grained garnets (high-Mg# eclogites) suggests that the high-Mg# eclogites formed through recrystallisation of low-Mg# eclogite in the presence of an external fluid in the mantle. Four of the five high-Mg# samples show that mantle metasomatism inside the Kasai craton mantle beneath the Catoca pipe occurred at a depth range of 145-160 km (4.5-4.8 GPa).

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