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Kowalewicz, Katharina; Vorndran, Elke; Feichtner, Franziska; Waselau, Anja-Christina; Brueckner, Manuel and Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea (2021): In-Vivo Degradation Behavior and Osseointegration of 3D Powder-Printed Calcium Magnesium Phosphate Cement Scaffolds. In: Materials, Vol. 14, No. 4, 946

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Calcium magnesium phosphate cements (CMPCs) are promising bone substitutes and experience great interest in research. Therefore, in-vivo degradation behavior, osseointegration and biocompatibility of three-dimensional (3D) powder-printed CMPC scaffolds were investigated in the present study. The materials Mg225 (Ca0.75Mg2.25(PO4)(2)) and Mg225d (Mg225 treated with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP)) were implanted as cylindrical scaffolds (h = 5 mm, o = 3.8 mm) in both lateral femoral condyles in rabbits and compared with tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Treatment with DAHP results in the precipitation of struvite, thus reducing pore size and overall porosity and increasing pressure stability. Over 6 weeks, the scaffolds were evaluated clinically, radiologically, with Micro-Computed Tomography (mu CT) and histological examinations. All scaffolds showed excellent biocompatibility. X-ray and in-vivo mu CT examinations showed a volume decrease and increasing osseointegration over time. Structure loss and volume decrease were most evident in Mg225. Histologically, all scaffolds degraded centripetally and were completely traversed by new bone, in which the remaining scaffold material was embedded. While after 6 weeks, Mg225d and TCP were still visible as a network, only individual particles of Mg225 were present. Based on these results, Mg225 and Mg225d appear to be promising bone substitutes for various loading situations that should be investigated further.

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