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Kreitmeyr, Katharina; Pecar, Alenka; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Both, Ulrich von and Hübner, Johannes (2021): Pediatric Antibiotic Stewardship Optimization of Vancomycin Therapy Based on Individual Pharmacokinetics. In: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 40, No. 6: pp. 556-562

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Background: Vancomycin has been a first-line treatment for Gram-positive infections for decades. However, strategies for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and dose-optimization in pediatrics remain controversial. In this study, we analyzed the impact of specific antibiotic stewardship interventions on efficacy and safety of vancomycin therapy. Methods: From September 2014 to May 2017, we conducted a prospective study to compare a control and a TDM intervention group in our tertiary care center. As part of an antibiotic stewardship program, we implemented internal guidelines on correct vancomycin dosing, TDM timing, as well as targeted trough level range and installed a pharmacokinetic (PK) consultation service to adapt vancomycin dosing to individually calculated PK parameters. As primary clinical outcomes, the percentage of patients with sustained therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and treatment days with therapeutic vancomycin trough levels, that is, 10-15 mg/L were analyzed. Secondary outcomes included nephrotoxicity, readmission rate and mortality. Median daily dose required to achieve therapeutic trough levels was examined. Results: Clinical outcomes for 90 control patients were compared with outcomes for 19 patients guided by a PK consultation service. Percentage of patients with sustained therapeutic vancomycin trough levels increased from 17.8% to 94.7% (P < 0.001) and percentage of treatment days with therapeutic vancomycin trough levels increased from 18.4% (117/637) to 665% (155/233, P < 0.001). Readmission rate decreased from 24.4% to 5.3% (P = 0.07). No differences in nephrotoxicity or mortality rate were observed between groups. A median daily dose of 72 mg/kg/d was required to achieve therapeutic trough levels. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that implementation of internal guidelines and a PK consultation service was associated with a profound improvement of vancomycin therapy and, therefore, patient safety.

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