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Kronberg, E. A.; Daly, P. W.; Grigorenko, E. E.; Smirnov, A. G.; Klecker, B. and Malykhin, A. Yu. (2021): Energetic Charged Particles in the Terrestrial Magnetosphere: Cluster/RAPID Results. In: Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, Vol. 126, No. 9, e2021JA029273

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In this work, we review the results of observations by the Cluster/Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors (RAPID) energetic charged particle detector (similar to>40 keV-similar to 1 MeV). The origin of energetic ions in the region upstream of the Earth's bow shock is compared under different solar wind conditions. We give a brief overview of the acceleration mechanisms of charged particles in the plasma sheet. Effective acceleration is associated with (multiple) interaction(s) of charged particles with multiscale magnetic structures and/or electromagnetic fluctuations, which are the consequences of reconnection or other plasma instabilities. The necessity of such acceleration mechanisms to reproduce the distributions of energetic particles on closed magnetic field lines is discussed. We review empirical models describing the distributions of charged particles. Several aspects of the dynamics of energetic particles during substorms and their influence on the dynamics of magnetic storms are shown. We advise to consider including the energetic particles at >40 keV in calculations of the plasma temperature and pressure during these dynamic processes.

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