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Kühne, Julius; Wang, Juan; Weber, Thomas; Kühner, Lucca; Maier, Stefan A. and Tittl, Andreas (2021): Fabrication robustness in BIC metasurfaces. In: Nanophotonics, Vol. 10, No. 17: pp. 4305-4312

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All-dielectric metasurfaces supporting photonic bound states in the continuum (BICs) are an exciting toolkit for achieving resonances with ultranarrow linewidths. However, the transition from theory to experimental real-ization can significantly reduce the optical performance of BIC-based nanophotonic systems, severely limiting their application potential. Here, we introduce a combined nu-merical/experimental methodology for predicting how unavoidable tolerances in nanofabrication such as random geometrical variations affect the performance of different BIC metasurface designs. We compare several established all-dielectric BIC unit cell geometries with broken in-plane inversion symmetry including tilted ellipses, asymmetric double rods, and split rings. Significantly, even for low fabrication-induced geometrical changes, both the BIC resonance amplitude and its quality factor (Q-factor) are significantly reduced. We find that the all-dielectric ellip-ses maintain the highest Q-factors throughout the geometrical variation range, whereas the rod and split ring geometries fall off more quickly. The same behavior is confirmed experimentally, where geometrical variation values are derived from automated processing of sets of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Our meth-odology provides crucial insights into the performance degradation of BIC metasurfaces when moving from simulations to fabricated samples and will enable the development of robust, high-Q, and easy to manufacture nanophotonic platforms for applications ranging from biomolecular sensing to higher harmonic generation.

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