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Lehmann, Tobias and Melzer, Roland R. (2021): Outsourcing a visual neuropil-The central visual system of the median eyes of Galeodes granti Pocock, 1903 (Arachnida: Solifugae). In: Arthropod Structure & Development, Vol. 60, 101024

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Only a few studies have examined the central visual system of Solifugae until now. To get new insights suitable for phylogenetic analysis we studied the R-cell (or retinula cell) projections and visual neuropils of Galeodes granti using various methods. G. granti possesses large median eyes and rudimentary lateral eyes. In this study, only the R-cells and neuropils of the median eyes were successfully stained. The R-cells terminate in two distinct visual neuropils. The first neuropil is located externally to the protocerebrum directly below the retina, the second neuropil lies in the cell body rind of the protocerebrum, and immediately adjacent is the arcuate body. This layout of the median eye visual system differs from Arachnopulmonata (Scorpiones thorn Tetrapulmonata). However, there are several similarities with Opiliones. In both, (1) the R-cells are connected to a first and second visual neuropil and not to any other region of the brain, (2) the first neuropil is not embedded in the cell body rind of the protocerebrum, it is rather external to the protocerebrum, (3) the second visual neuropil is embedded in the cell body rind, and (4) the second neuropil abuts the arcuate body. These findings may provide important new characters for the discussion on arachnid phylogeny. (c) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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