Smith, Joseph R.; Sillay, Karl; Winkler, Peter; King, Don W.; Loring, David W.
Orbitofrontal epilepsy: Electroclinical analysis of surgical cases and literature review.
In: Stereotactic and functional Neurosurgery, No. 1: pp. 20-25
Clinical and electrographic data were reviewed on 2 of our patients with orbitofrontal epilepsy who were seizure free at 5-year follow-up, and on 2 similar patients from the literature. One of our patients was lesional, and the other was nonlesional. Interictal EEG discharges were lateralized to the side of invasively recorded orbitofrontal seizures in the nonlesional case. In this case, no clinical manifestations occurred until the orbitofrontal discharge had spread to the opposite orbitofrontal and both mesial temporal areas. Unresponsiveness or arrest of activity were the initial manifestations of complex partial seizures in both cases. The 2 cases from the literature with long-term seizure-free follow-up had little impairment of awareness and displayed vigorous motor automatisms. Interictal epileptiform activity was bifrontally synchronous in 1 case. Ipsilateral frontotemporal discharges were seen in both. Invasive ictal epileptiform activity appeared maximal in the ipsilateral orbitofrontal region in both patients. No consistent electrographic or clinical pattern characterized these 4 cases. Seizures of orbitofrontal origin may be characterized by either unresponsiveness associated with oroalimentary automatisms or limited alteration of awareness and associated with vigorous motor automatisms. Invasive monitoring of the orbitofrontal cortex should be considered in nonlesional cases with complex partial seizures that show nonlocalizing ictal patterns and interictal frontal or frontotemporal epileptiform discharges. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.