Eberharter, Anton; Ferreira, Roger; Becker, Peter
Dynamic chromatin: concerted nucleosome remodelling and acetylation.
In: Biological Chemistry, Vol. 386, Nr. 8: S. 745-751
The flexibility of chromatin that enables translation of environmental cues into changes in genome utilisation, relies on a battery of enzymes able to modulate chromatin structure in a highly targeted and regulated manner. The most dynamic structural changes are brought about by two kinds of enzymes with different functional principles. Changes in the acetylation status of histones modulate the folding of the nucleosomal fibre. The histone-DNA interactions that define the nucleosome itself can be disrupted by ATP-dependent remodelling factors. This review focuses on recent developments that illustrate various strategies for integrating these disparate activities into complex regulatory schemes. Synergies may be brought about by consecutive or parallel action during the stepwise process of chromatin opening or closing. Tight co-ordination may be achieved by direct interaction of (de-)acetylation enzymes and remodelling ATPases or even permanent residence within the same multi-enzyme complex. The fact that remodelling ATPases can be acetylated by histone acetyltransferases themselves suggests exciting possibilities for the coordinate modulation of chromatin structure and remodelling enzymes.