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Russow, A.; Schmahl, Wolfgang W.; Fuess, H.; Muessig, Th. (1994): Characterization of AgBr1-xIx emulsions by Rietveld refinement of x-ray powder diffraction data. In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Vol. 38, Nr. 6: S. 532-538
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Abstract

Measurement of lattice parameters by x-ray powder diffraction is a well-known method to characterize the chemical composition of microcrystalline silver halide emulsion grains. Nevertheless, the full x-ray powder diffraction pattern contains much more information about the average properties of the sample, i.e., crystal structure, chemical composition, grain size, preferred orientation and secondary phases. The Rietveld refinement is a powerful tool to extract all this information simultaneously from the pattern. Values related to lattice parameters and peak intensities are computed with high accuracy. In the system AgBr-AgI we found thermodynamically stable solid solutions with up to 32\% iodide content. Different phases of core-shell structured grains were clearly separated. The preferred orientation of tabular grains was well described by a simple single-parameter function.