Hutter, Stefan; Knabl, Julia; Andergassen, Ulrich; Jeschke, Udo
The Role of PPARs in Placental Immunology: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
In: PPAR Research, Vol. 2013, 70276
Pregnancy is a state of immunotolerance, and pregnancy outcome is strongly linked to the correct activation and balancing of the maternal immune system. Besides abortion as possible result of improper early pregnancy development, other pregnancy associated conditions like preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), preterm labour, or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are linked to immunologic overactivation and dysregulation. Both the innate and the adaptive immune system, and therefore B and T lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NK), macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are all involved in trophoblast invasion, pregnancy maintenance, and development of pregnancy disorders. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors with three known isotypes: PPAR alpha, PPAR beta/delta, andPPAR gamma. They are expressed in most human organs and their function extends from regulating metabolism, homeostasis, and carcinogenesis to immune response. In the recent years, PPARs have been identified inmost reproductive tissues and in all lines of immune cells. Only in few cases, the role of PPARs in reproductive immunology has been elucidated though the role of PPARs in immune answer and immunotolerance is evident. Within this paper we would like to give an update on today's knowledge about PPARs and immune cells in reproduction and highlight interesting interferences in regard of future therapeutic targets.