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Urbansky, Sören (2016): Für Clan und Vaterland? Loyalitätsstrukturen in Chinatown San Francisco während der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. In: Geschichte und Gesellschaft, Vol. 42, No. 4: pp. 621-650

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This article explores the shifting loyalties in San Francisco's Chinatown during the first half of the twentieth century. Bearing the multiple stigmata of being alien, illegal, and poor, Chinese immigrants maintained their trans -Pacific diasporic allegiances. Clan -based loyalty structures and sworn brotherhoods began to erode during the 1900s when the bubonic plague epidemic and the 1906 earthquake hit San Francisco. The Pacific War was another watershed moment that increased opportunities for economic and social inclusion of Chinese immigrants into mainstream American society. In this fight against a common enemy, Chinese Americans proved their loyalty to the country to which their parents had immigrated.

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