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Deeng, J.; Chan, K. Y.; Sluis, E. O. van der; Berninghausen, O.; Han, W.; Gumbart, J.; Schulten, K.; Beatrix, B.; Beckmann, R. (2016): Dynamic Behavior of Trigger Factor on the Ribosome. In: Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 428, No. 18: pp. 3588-3602
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Trigger factor (TF) is the only ribosome-associated chaperone in bacteria. It interacts with hydrophobic segments in nascent chain (NCs) as they emerge from the ribosome. TF binds via its N-terminal ribosome-binding domain (RBD) mainly to ribosomal protein uL23 at the tunnel exit on the large ribosomal subunit. Whereas earlier structural data suggested that TF binds as a rigid molecule to the ribosome, recent comparisons of structural data on substrate-bound, ribosome-bound, and TF in solution from different species suggest that this chaperone is a rather flexible molecule. Here, we present two cryo-electron microscopy structures of TF bound to ribosomes translating an mRNA coding for a known TF substrate from Escherichia coli of a different length. The structures reveal distinct degrees of flexibility for the different TF domains, a conformational rearrangement of the RBD upon ribosome binding, and an increase in rigidity within TF when the NC is extended. Molecular dynamics simulations agree with these data and offer a molecular basis for these observations. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.