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Xiao, Zhu; Shenghang, Wang and Ehemann, Eva-Maria (2017): Development of environmental rights in China: Substantive environmental rights or procedural environmental rights. In: Frontiers of Law in China, Vol. 12, No. 1: pp. 24-56

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The relationship between environmental and human rights is very significant. On this basis, humans shall have the right to claim to live in a healthy environment. In China, the study of environmental rights began in the 1980's. After more than thirty years of discussions on environmental rights, there are a series of environmental rights theories in China. However, scholars have not formed a consensus on some fundamental theories of environmental rights. Moreover, some experts consider that environmental rights include substantive environmental rights and procedural environmental rights, whereas others argue that environmental rights only include substantive environmental rights. Furthermore, the nexus and difference between the right to environment and environmental rights are not clear. "Environmental rights" are treated as a broad concept, its scope includes all rights which are related to the environment. They certainly do not only include substantive, but also procedural environmental rights. Even though the introduction of substantive environmental rights has faced both legislative and practical difficulties, the topic has become a central issue in Chinese academic research.

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