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Eisel, Maximilian; Ströbl, Stephan; Pongratz, Thomas; Strittmatter, Frank; Sroka, Ronald (2018): Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser induced lithotripsy: in-vitro investigations on fragmentation, dusting, propulsion and fluorescence. In: Biomedical Optics Express, Vol. 9, No. 11: pp. 5115-5128
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Abstract

The fragmentation efficiency on Bego artificial stones during lithotripsy and the propulsive effect (via video tracking) was investigated for a variety of laser settings. A variation of the laser settings (pulse energy, pulse duration, repetition rate) altered the total application time required for stone fragmentation, the stone break up time, and the propulsion. The obtained results can be used to develop lithotripsy devices providing an optimal combination of low stone propulsion and high fragmentation efficacy, which can then be evaluated in a clinical setting. Additionally. the fluorescence of human kidney stones was inspected endoscopically in vivo. Fluorescence light can be used to detect stone-free areas or to clearly distinguish calculi from surrounding tissue or operation tools.