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Muehlberg, Fabian; Arnhold, Kristin; Fritschi, Simone; Funk, Stephanie; Prothmann, Marcel; Kermer, Josephine; Zange, Leonora; Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian von; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette (2018): Comparison of fast multi-slice and standard segmented techniques for detection of late gadolinium enhancement in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy - a prospective clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance trial. In: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 20, 13
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Abstract

Background: Segmented phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) sequences are reference standard for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial fibrosis using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Several multi-slice LGE sequences have been introduced for faster acquisition in patients with arrhythmia and insufficient breathhold capability. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of several multi-slice LGE sequences to detect and quantify myocardial fibrosis in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial disease. Methods: Patients with known or suspected LGE due to chronic infarction, inflammatory myocardial disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were prospectively recruited. LGE images were acquired 10-20 min after administration of 0.2 mmol/kg gadolinium-based contrast agent. Three different LGE sequences were acquired: a segmented, single-slice/single-breath-hold fast low angle shot PSIR sequence (FLASH-PSIR), a multi-slice balanced steady-state free precession inversion recovery sequence (bSSFP-IR) and a multi-slice bSSFP-PSIR sequence during breathhold and free breathing. Image quality was evaluated with a 4-point scoring system. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and acquisition time were evaluated. LGE was quantitatively assessed using a semi-automated threshold method. Differences in size of fibrosis were analyzed using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Three hundred twelve patients were enrolled (n = 212 chronic infarction, n = 47 inflammatory myocardial disease, n = 53 HCM) Of which 201 patients (67,4%) had detectable LGE (n = 143 with chronic infarction, n = 27 with inflammatory heart disease and n = 31 with HCM). Image quality and CNR were best on multi-slice bSSFP-PSIR. Acquisition times were significantly shorter for all multi-slice sequences (bSSFP-IR: 23.4 +/- 7.2 s;bSSFP-PSIR: 21.9 +/- 6. 4 s) as compared to FLASH-PSIR (361.5 +/- 95.33 s). There was no significant difference of mean LGE size for all sequences in all study groups (FLASH-PSIR: 8.96 +/- 10.64 g;bSSFP-IR: 8.69 +/- 10.75 g;bSSFP-PSIR: 9.05 +/- 10.84 g;bSSFP-PSIR free breathing: 8.85 +/- 10.71 g, p > 0.05). LGE size was not affected by arrhythmia or absence of breathhold on multi-slice LGE sequences. Conclusions: Fast multi-slice and standard segmented LGE sequences are equivalent techniques for the assessment of myocardial fibrosis, independent of an ischemic or non-ischemic etiology. Even in patients with arrhythmia and insufficient breathhold capability, multi-slice sequences yield excellent image quality at significantly reduced scan time and may be used as standard LGE approach.