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van Ess, Hans (2019): LITERARY WORKS AND ALLUSION IN THREE BIOGRAPHIES OF THE HOU HANSHU AND THEIR PURPOSE Zhang Heng (78-139), Ma Rong (79-166), and Cai Yong (132-192). In: Monumenta Serica-Journal of Oriental Studies, Vol. 67, No. 1: pp. 111-126
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Abstract

This article analyses pieces of literature included in Fan Ye's chapters on Zhang Heng, Ma Rong, and Cai Yong. It interprets these pieces within the context of its authors' biographies, coming to the conclusion that they represent different approaches to the Confucian theme of how to serve and survive in times when there is no good ruler. While Zhang Heng was able to make a career under such circumstances, Ma Rong survived but ran into great difficulties and Cai Yong was ultimately executed.