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Voegerl, Katharina; Ong, Nghia; Senger, Johanna; Herp, Daniel; Schmidtkunz, Karin; Marek, Martin; Müller, Martin; Bartel, Karin; Shaik, Tajith B.; Porter, Nicholas J.; Robaa, Dina; Christianson, David W.; Romier, Christophe; Sippl, Wolfgang; Jung, Manfred; Bracher, Franz (2019): Synthesis and Biological Investigation of Phenothiazine-Based Benzhydroxamic Acids as Selective Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors. In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 62, No. 3: pp. 1138-1166
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The phenothiazine system was identified as a favorable cap group for potent and selective histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitors. Here, we report the YJ It z preparation and systematic variation of phenothiazines and their analogues containing a benzhydroxamic acid moiety as the zinc-binding group. We evaluated their ability to selectively inhibit HDAC6 by a recombinant HDAC enzyme assay, by determining the protein acetylation levels in cells by western blotting (tubulin vs histone acetylation), and by assessing their effects on various cancer cell lines. Structure activity relationship studies revealed that incorporation of a nitrogen atom into the phenothiazine framework increased potency and selectivity for HDAC6 (more than 500-fold selectivity relative to the inhibition of HDAC1, HDAC4, and HDAC8), as rationalized by molecular modeling and docking studies. The binding mode was confirmed by co-crystallization of the potent azaphenothiazine inhibitor with catalytic domain 2 from Danio rerio HDAC6.