Logo Logo
Switch Language to German
Wurzlbauer, Anne; Rueben, Katharina; Guerdal, Ece; Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Sippl, Wolfgang; Becker, Walter; Bracher, Franz (2020): How to Separate Kinase Inhibition from Undesired Monoamine Oxidase A Inhibition-The Development of the DYRK1A Inhibitor AnnH75 from the Alkaloid Harmine. In: Molecules, Vol. 25, No. 24, 5962
Full text not available from 'Open Access LMU'.


The beta-carboline alkaloid harmine is a potent DYRK1A inhibitor, but suffers from undesired potent inhibition of MAO-A, which strongly limits its application. We synthesized more than 60 analogues of harmine, either by direct modification of the alkaloid or by de novo synthesis of beta-carboline and related scaffolds aimed at learning about structure-activity relationships for inhibition of both DYRK1A and MAO-A, with the ultimate goal of separating desired DYRK1A inhibition from undesired MAO-A inhibition. Based on evidence from published crystal structures of harmine bound to each of these enzymes, we performed systematic structure modifications of harmine yielding DYRK1A-selective inhibitors characterized by small polar substituents at N-9 (which preserve DYRK1A inhibition and eliminate MAO-A inhibition) and beneficial residues at C-1 (methyl or chlorine). The top compound AnnH75 remains a potent DYRK1A inhibitor, and it is devoid of MAO-A inhibition. Its binding mode to DYRK1A was elucidated by crystal structure analysis, and docking experiments provided additional insights for this attractive series of DYRK1A and MAO-A inhibitors.