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Da Riva, Rocio; Novotny, Jamie (2022): A Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar II from Uruk in the Cindy and David Sofer Collection displayed in the Bible Lands Museum Jerusalem. In: Telling of Olden Kings. The IOS Annual, Vol. 22. Brill. pp. 3-29


A three-column clay cylinder on display at the Bible Lands Museum (Jerusalem) and inscribed with an Akkadian inscription records Nebuchadnezzar II's (r. 604–562 BCE) reconstruction of Eanna (whose Sumerian name means "House of Heaven"), the temple of the goddess Ishtar at Uruk (modern Warka). Although this Neo-Babylonian king's rebuilding of Eanna has been known since the mid-nineteenth century, there has been little textual and archaeological evidence from Uruk itself to support Nebuchadnezzar's claims. This is the first positively-identified foundation document of this NeoBabylonian king to have come from Ishtar's most important temple in Babylonia. The cylinder's production was connected to the return of that goddess' statue to her beloved city during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II.