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Nell, Martin and Richter, Andreas ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2588-4813 (2001): Alternative Risk Transfer Mechanisms for Seismic Risks. In: Kleindorfer, Paul R. and Sertel, Murat R. (eds.) : Mitigation and Financing of Seismic Risks: Turkish and International Perspectives. NATO Science Series: IV, Vol. 3. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 237-253

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Damages inflicted by natural catastrophes in recent years have accounted for economic losses of a size heretofore unknown.1 During this period, one could detect an increasing frequency of catastrophic events as well as an increase in the average amount of loss per event; the latter largely stemming from the geographic concentration of values in catastrophe-prone areas. For the case of earthquakes no significant trends in the number of occurrences are observed, but the influence of concentration of values on damages was demonstrated in a dramatic way in 1999: Although the number of severe earthquakes was not unusual, these events, among them the dreadful disaster in Izmit (Turkey), were perceived as a very singular accumulation, since in a short time span several densely populated areas were hit.

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