Nickelsen, Kärin; Björn, Lars Olof; Govindjee, R.
Evolution of the Z-Scheme of Electron Transport in Oxygenic Photosynthesis.
15th Comference on Photosynthesis, 22.-25.8.2010, Bejing.
We start with the discussion of the photosynthetic unit, based on the experiments of Emerson and
Arnold (1932a, 1932b), continue with the first two-quantum proposal by Rabinowitch (1945, 1956), Emerson's
Red drop (1943) and Emerson Enhancement Effect (1957) and various action spectra made for understanding the
roles of the photosynthetic pigments. The experimental work of Kok (1959) and the theoretical model by Hill and
Bendall (1960) were followed soon thereafter by the seminal papers of Duysens et al. (1961) and Duysens and
Amesz (1962), in which the two photosystems were shown to be connected, in series, by cytochrome, which can
be photooxidized by photo system I and photoreduced by photosystem II. Further, Witt et al. (1961) and others,
cited in this paper, made refinement of the Z-scheme.