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Bischoff, Lukas; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland (2014): Molecular Basis for the Ribosome Functioning as an L-Tryptophan Sensor. In: Cell Reports, Vol. 9, No. 2: pp. 469-475
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Abstract

Elevated levels of the free amino acid L-tryptophan (L-Trp) trigger expression of the tryptophanase tnaCAB operon in E. coli. Activation depends on tryptophan- dependent ribosomal stalling during translation of the upstream TnaC peptide. Here, we present a cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at 3.8 angstrom resolution of a ribosome stalled by the TnaC peptide. Unexpectedly, we observe two L-Trp molecules in the ribosomal exit tunnel coordinated within composite hydrophobic pockets formed by the nascent TnaC peptide and the tunnel wall. As a result, the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) adopts a distinct conformation that precludes productive accommodation of release factor 2 (RF2), thereby inducing translational stalling. Collectively, our results demonstrate how the translating ribosome can act as a small molecule sensor for gene regulation.