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Butz, Nikolaus T.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Jensen, Jason L. and Harsell, Dana M. (2016): The Impact of Emotions on Student Achievement in Synchronous Hybrid Business and Public Administration Programs: A Longitudinal Test of Control-Value Theory. In: Decision Sciences-Journal of innovative Education, Vol. 14, No. 4: pp. 441-474

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Synchronous hybrid delivery (simultaneously teaching on-campus and online students using Web conferencing) is becoming more common in higher education. However, little is known about students' emotions in these environments. Although often overlooked, emotions are fundamental antecedents of success. This study longitudinally examined the role of students' emotions (enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom), perceptions of control, value, and success in synchronous hybrid learning environments. In particular, the investigation assessed students' self-reported enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom as predictors of their program achievement and successful technology use. Students were recruited from synchronous hybrid MBA and MPA programs. Control-value theory of emotions was used as the theoretical framework. Paired samples t-tests revealed that the achievement domain, compared to the technology domain, yielded higher mean scores for control, value, enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom. In addition, mixed ANOVAs indicated an interaction effect in which group means for program boredom were significantly higher for on-campus students than for online students. Intercorrelations in each domain showed that perceived success was positively related to enjoyment and negatively related to anxiety and boredom. Technology-related anxiety was also found to fully mediate the positive effect of control on perceived success in using technology.

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