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Müller, Barbara C. N.; Ritter, Simone M.; Glock, Sabine; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Baaren, Rick B. van (2016): Smoking-related warning messages formulated as questions positively influence short-term smoking behaviour. In: Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 21, No. 1: pp. 60-68
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Abstract

Research demonstrated that by reformulating smoking warnings into questions, defensive responses in smokers are reduced and smoking-related risk perception increases. We explored whether these positive outcomes can be generalised to actual behaviour. Participants saw either a movie presenting subheadings with smoking-related questions or statements. Afterwards, the time was measured until participants lit their first cigarette. Smokers who were presented with questions about the harms of smoking waited longer before lighting up a cigarette than smokers who were presented with statements. Presenting questions instead of the statements seems to be an effective means to prolonging smokers' abstinence.