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Kneer, Julia; Glock, Sabine; Rieger, Diana (2012): Fast and Not Furious? Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance in Smokers. In: Social Psychology, Vol. 43, No. 2: pp. 81-91
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Abstract

Three studies explored whether cognitive dissonance in smokers is reduced immediately or remains constant due to the perceived health risk. Because dissonance-reducing strategies might occur very quickly and previous research has focused only on ratings concerning health risk, we additionally analyzed response latencies and psychophysiological arousal as more implicit measurements. In Study 1, 2, and 3, participants rated their smoking-related health risks twice for different diseases. Ratings, response latencies (Study 1, 2), and psychophysiological arousal (Study 3) differed during the first testing. Differences in response latencies and psychophysiological arousal diminished during the second testing, whereas ratings did not change. The results are discussed in terms of implicit methods as measurements for cognitive dissonance and in terms of prevention and intervention programs.