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Kober, Silvia; Ninaus, Manuel; Friedrich, Elisabeth V. C.; Scherer, Reinhold (2018): BCI and Games. Playful, Experience-Oriented Learning by Vivid Feedback? In: Nam, Chang S.; Nijholt, Anton; Lotte, Fabien (eds.) : Brain–Computer Interfaces Handbook. Technological and Theoretical Advances. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis. pp. 209-234
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Play, that is, self-motivated activities for enjoyment, is a significant aspect for human development and essential to learning and skill acquisition. Games, the structured form of play, are increasingly being used in brain–computer interface (BCI) and neurofeedback (NF) applications. In BCI and NF applications, patterns of the users’ brain activation are assessed in real time and fed back to the users. When users become successful in modulating their own brain activation, improvements in behavior, cognition, or motor function follow or they are able to control external devices such as a computer, wheelchair, or neuroprosthesis. In electroencephalogram-based applications, however, a large number of users cannot attain control over their own brain signals. Current approaches to attaining control require lengthy repetitive trainings. The use of games and game-like feedback aims at keeping user motivation and engagement high over time. This chapter provides an overview of existing game-like feedback modalities and critically discusses their potential value and also possible drawbacks in BCI and NF applications.