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Reif, Julia A. M.; Brodbeck, Felix C. (2014): Initiation of negotiation and its role in negotiation research. Foundations of a theoretical model. In: Organizational Psychology Review, Vol. 4, No. 4: pp. 363-381
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Most psychological studies about negotiation examine processes, strategies, and outcomes by providing a context with given roles, issues, and resources to the parties involved. We argue that this research is incomplete as psychological variables and processes, antecedent to the initiation of negotiation, are excluded. A theoretical model is developed which explains the initiation of negotiation by the key motivational process of discrepancy reduction, which arouses an emotional reaction. It integrates valence, expectancy and instrumentality considerations as moderating variables. The model serves as a research agenda for the psychological study of the prenegotiation phase, and for answering the questions of when and why people initiate (or suppress) negotiations, thereby offering grounds for probing how subsequent negotiations might be affected by characteristics of the prenegotiation phase. The overall aim is to foster our understanding about the psychological origins of negotiations to complement what is already known about the negotiation process.